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Feb 13, 2015

Black Banner

Posted By Snow at 2/13/2015
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 1996

The rise of the Mongol Empire, 13th century
Back in the 13th century, a new empire dawned from the East - the Mongol. Conquering cities from Asia to Europe, they became the largest contiguous empire in human history.

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY LIBRARY



Black Tug Banner
A replica of the Black Tug Banner flown by Genghis Khan

PETERS WANDERINGS


SAUDI ARAMCO AIN JALUT
The Middle East conquered, from 1256
I read the grandson of Gengis Khan, Hulegu Khan's mission was to move into Syria as far as the borders of Egypt. [Saudi Aramco] They conquered fortresses across Iran and the Levant, with efficiency using trebuchets. As seen in the picture, they also flew the Black Tug Banner - it is a pole made from horse tail, flown in war time. [Wikipedia]

The Fall of Baghdad, Feb 1258
Then Hulegu Khan turned to the Abbasid city of Baghdad. At the time, Baghdad was the renowed City of Knowledge with its House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة‎). But on this day 757 years ago, it fell to the Mongols. The House of Wisdom was destroyed, Al-Musta'sim became the last Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad; and the shock reverberated in the Islamic world.

The Battle of Ain Jalut, Sep 1260
As Hulegu Khan advanced westward to Syria, the survival of Cairo hung in the balance. But fate intervened, Mongke died so Hulegu returned, leaving the commands to Kitbuqa. They battled in Ain Jalut (the Spring of Goliath). Here for the first time, the Mongol was ultimately defeated - none had stopped the Mongol army until they reached Ain Jalut, near Jerusalem. The Mamluk victoriously stopped their westward advance.


Eastern Mongols - Western Arabs

As the Mongols became the largest contiguous empire in human history, they met the Arabs side by side.

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Embracing Islam

35 years later in 1295, Gazan Khan of the Mongols in Persia (Ilkhan) embraced Islam. الحمد لله With his conversion, a new era dawned. The Mongols became the champions of Islam, spreading it to India, Indonesia, Malaysia; with Farsi as the langua franca. [ref] They also became patrons of Persian learning; they had an observatory in Margheh in which Persian and Chinese scholars worked together, while Rashid al-Din (a jewish convert to Islam) wrote the Collection of Histories. [ref]
Notes

If there was a baby during the fall of Baghdad, he should be at least 37 when Ghazan embraced Islam. Wishing he is muslim.

Was the 13th century quasicrystal at Darb-i Imam, Iran built under the Mongols? Were Turabeg Khanym, Registan & Taj Mahal as well? [ref]

Saudi Aramco states "Khan" is from the Turkic "Han" (prince). Is it like Han Dynasty, hanfu or the surname "Han" (Hang Tuah, Hang Li Po)?

In 1313, Oz Beg Khan of the Mongols in Russia (Horde) made Islam as the state religion. الحمد لله The Horde actually had embraced Islam earlier than 1266 - during Berke Khan. Like the Ilkhan, they championed Islam around Kazakhstan.

In the 1420s, Ulug Beg of the Turko-Mongol in Central Asia (Chagatai) built an observatory in Samarkand, one of the finest in the world - Samarkand and Bukhara became learning centers. Then in the 1520s, Babur founded the Mughal Empire in India.

Meanwhile, the Mongols in China (Great Khan or Yuan) elected Shams al-Din Omar from Bukhara as Assistant Minister in Yunan - he attracted thousands of locals to embrace Islam. الحمد لله Then when the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan, they elected many muslims as administrators, scholars. They elected Zheng He as its most famous admiral - he maintained peace in the Malay archipelago which helped the spread of Islam in the 15th century.

I read Shams al-Din and Zheng He are said to be the Prophet's descendants. [ref | book]

ماشاء الله

Wishing Hulegu, the Mongols and all the rest are like Khalid Walid

I seek refuge in Allah SWT from errors
Only Allah SWT Knows Best والله أعلم

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2 comments on "Black Banner"

Snow on Feb 13, 2015, 10:57:00 PM said...

I found some Salar muslims with Han surname. Wikipedia states they originated from Oghuz Turks. In the 14th century, they pledged allegiance to the Ming Dynasty and took Han and Ma as their surname.

Then in the 15th century, there is a figure named Hang Li Po from the Ming Dynasty who is said to have married Sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. There is also the famous admiral Hang Tuah with his compatriots Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekir and Hang Lekiu in Malacca at that time.

So the question is, is "Hang" a surname?

Snow on Feb 14, 2015, 4:17:00 PM said...

(m-m) trying to read so many Khans! ماشاء الله


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