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Jul 6, 2014

Dear Biologist

Posted By Snow at 7/06/2014
What Is Cell and DNA
Cell is the basic building block of our body. A group of cells grow to become tissues, which in turn grow to become organs — such as the brain, heart, eyes. | CELL For every cell in our body, the DNA is a long molecule inside the nucleus of the cell. Except for sperm and egg cells, DNA is a set of 23 pairs of chromosomes — with 22 similar pairs, and 1 different pair. The different pair determines male XY or female XX. | DNA

For sperm and egg cells, the chromosome pair is missing. So when sperm meets egg, the chromosome pair is completed.

NOTE after fertilization, the embryo has both male and female organs. الزوجين [Q75:39] It has gonad which can become testes or ovaries, male and female ducts, and external genital tubercle. Once the gonad becomes testes with male hormones, it becomes male and regresses the female ducts. Without these hormones, the male ducts regresses and it becomes female. | ref1 | ref2
Why is sperm X different from egg X — is there a male activated in the X
• If so, is chromosome X essential in developing gender | ref1 | ref2
• Then, can egg X become sperm X, and birth a male baby | photo

The Genetic Code

DNA is called genetic code bcoz it holds the instructions for making protein in our body. The code is in the DNA base pairs, which is used by cells to sequence various amino acids — the building block of protein.

Various proteins make up our muscle, bone, hair, skin, enzymes, hemoglobin etc. E.g. our eye color is lighter with less melanin, and darker with more melanin. | DNA TO PROTEIN

Cell Takes In Nutrients

• lactose
• lipids
• protein
• carbs
• calsium
• vitamins


Drink milk

Cell takes in nutrients → growth
How does the food we eat nourishes cells, and makes our body grow

When we eat food, the nutrients are absorbed into our blood stream, in which cells can use it. With enough nutrients and energy, cells can then copy its DNA and divide — birthing new cells. New cells are essential for growth, renewal and repair.

Cell's Life Span and Regeneration
Imagine a cell's life span
- birth (appears)
- child → prime → old
- death (disappears)
During its prime age, if the cell births to only one child, this child replaces the parent - so the number of cell remains the same.

If it does not give birth, the body will lose the cell when it dies.
If the cell births two children, the children multiply, with two children replacing one parent - so the number of cells increases.

• What causes the cells to birth
   at certain speed? #regeneration
If abnormal growth develops cancer, can a solution inhibit the growth
• i.e. mark cells → insert solution → cells die #enzyme #proteinbreakdown

I seek refuge in Allah SWT from errors
Only Allah SWT Knows Best والله أعلم

8 comments on "Dear Biologist"

Snow on Nov 5, 2016, 1:07:00 PM said...

If a female egg can become a male sperm, do you know what it means...
.: \(~ v ~)/ :. in purity and beauty #virgin ❤ الحمد لله

Snow on Nov 7, 2016, 3:27:00 AM said...

"This is called Androgen Insensitivity syndrome or AIS ... People who have complete AIS are genetically boys (XY), but they have the physical characteristics of a girl. People who have partial AIS are also genetically boys (XY). They have some of the physical characteristics of a girl and some of a boy. Even though this gene is on the X chromosome, it obviously plays a key role in making someone a boy." | Understanding Genetics

"male genitals in a significant number of SRY-negative 46,XX males gives clue to the existence of other autosomal or X-linked genes" | A case report of an XX male with complete masculinization but absence of the SRY gene, Ghalia Abou Alchamat et al

I wonder why sperm (X) is unlike egg (X), is it genes expressing it to be male | photo

Still trying to understand (◠oo◠) سبحان الله والله أعلم

Snow on Apr 23, 2018, 5:05:00 AM said...

If I may say this ... sometimes ... I wonder if the soul is female. But with a burst of hormones, males became more gruff physically. If it becomes even more gruff will it be simian (قردة)? So what's truly important is the the beauty of our soulهوى

Snow on Apr 23, 2018, 5:06:00 AM said...

I keep having this imagination that, the cancer cells growth is activated by something. Say when you get a cut, and the injured cells are damaged. Then something signals blood to pool there - where it works to stop the bleeding, repair and replace the cells. So something attracts blood to these cells, where it activates the repair mechanism. Right?

So then. Say the body have completely healthy cells. But somehow this mechanism is activated in one cell. It's as if that one cell becomes "injured" - and activated the repair mechanism. So blood pools to that cell where it accelerates cell growth. So the cells multiplies, and now there is a "tumor".

It's as if a there is an activation in the cell, which attracts nutrients from the blood to it, and accelerates cell growth. But... This needs a scientist to answer, I don't really know, I only have this imagination. والله أعلم

Hmmm so is this angiogenesis, and the idea of cutting blood supply to cancer cells

Snow on Apr 23, 2018, 5:06:00 AM said...

I really wish research can figure out targeted therapy. I know it sounds science fiction, but can't there be a solution that can alter the cells state? Like you insert this solution into the targeted cancer cells, and it wilts.

Is it the density, PH of the fluids inside the cells? والله أعلم

Well ... I kinda wish for targeted therapy, as I think when cancer treatment also destroys healthy cells it weakens the body more than it should. If targeted therapy can minimize this, perhaps the body can better repair itself, and not be too overwhelmed.

Snow on Apr 23, 2018, 5:07:00 AM said...

BTW I feel this saliva thing is like water on rockDear Chemist
Normal saliva is nice and protective, but it feels like thick saliva burns ☆ Electrolyte

It's as if the "water" part of the saliva is gone, the body deteriorates
Is it like the heart, if the "water" is gone it becomes rough (فقست قلوبهم [Q2:74], kesat)
So it traps particles which decays in its cavities ( نكتة سوداء في قلبه [IM5.37.4244], noktah)

Snow on Apr 23, 2018, 5:08:00 AM said...

How cancer cells fuel their growth
Although cells consume glucose and the amino acid glutamine at very high rates, the researchers found that those two molecules contribute little to the mass of new cells — glucose accounts for 10 to 15 percent of the carbon found in the cells, while glutamine contributes about 10 percent of the carbon. Instead, the largest contributors to cell mass were amino acids, which make up proteins. As a group, amino acids (excluding glutamine) contribute the majority of the carbon atoms found in new cells and 20 to 40 percent of the total mass ... most of the glucose burned by these cells is excreted as lactate. | MITNews

Protein once thought exclusive to neurons helps some cancers grow
The two studies find that dynamin1 (Dyn1), a protein once thought to be present only in nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord, is also found in aggressive cancer cells | ScienceDaily

Lung cancer cells spread like unanchored tents
Communication between two proteins is what triggers the cell tent to lose its shape and become unanchored ... allows the cells to travel to other areas of the body ... the Golgi apparatus - receives a signal from proteins which prompts the movement of membrane sacks inside it. This movement alters the shape and surface of the cancer cell, allowing it to break free ... | BBC

Snow on Apr 23, 2018, 5:09:00 AM said...

Pinning a bull’s-eye on cancer cells
the researchers first give tumor-bearing mice an ether-protected sugar that carries an azide group ... gets attached to glycoproteins in the cell membrane. Because cancer cells proliferate quickly, they overexpress some enzymes ... In the second step, researchers give the mice an anticancer drug ... improved drug-targeting selectivity 50% for treated tumors over untreated ones. | C&EN | photo

Scientists modify immune cells to fight patient's lung cancer
A world where DNA can be rewritten to fix deadly diseases has moved a step closer after scientists said they had genetically edited the cells of a human for the first time. A man in China was injected with immune cells modified to fight his lung cancer... The technique used, Crispr, snips away genetic code | NZHerald | Nature | photo

Man 'cured' of prostate cancer
laboratory experiments had hinted that blasting tumours with high levels of the hormone might suppress or even kill prostate cancer cells ... Cancer cells stopped dividing and turned "senescent" | Telegraph

Synthetic molecule kills cancer cells with salt
Researchers from the University of Southampton are part of an international team that has helped to create a molecule that can cause cancer cells to self-destruct by carrying sodium and chloride ions into the cells. | Nature | Uni Southampton

HAMLET kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism
HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex that induces apoptosis-like death in tumor cells, but leaves fully differentiated cells unaffected ... The results illustrate how protein folding variants may be beneficial, and how their formation in peripheral tissues may depend on the folding change and the availability of the lipid cofactor. One example is the acid pH in the stomach of the breast-fed child that promotes the formation of HAMLET. This mechanism may contribute to the protective effect of breastfeeding against childhood tumors. | Svanborg C et. al. | NCBI

How dense is a cell
Understanding how density of individual cancer cells relates to malignant progression could provide fundamental insights into the underlying cellular processes | MIT

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