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Mar 26, 2012

Rocks, Gems and Meteors

Posted By Snow at 3/26/2012

The Recipe To Make A Rock

When chemical elements combine, it becomes:
- a rock, when 2 or more elements combine مختلف الوانها [Q35:27]
- a crystal, when an element or mineral grows into a certain shape.


The Rock Cycle


Rocks on this Earth - from mountains, lands etc - are constantly being formed, broken down and then formed again - in a cycle called the Rock Cycle. وترى الجبال تحسبها جامدة وهي تمر مر السحاب [Q27:88] There are 3 types of rocks in this cycle, based on how they're formed. [geology, wiki]

 1  Sedimentary
Formed when erosion broke down bits of rocks, which settle in layers upon layers (sediments). منها لما يهبط [Q2:74] This type of rock may contain fossils. الأرض كفاتا [Q77:25-26] E.g.:


Conglomerate

Shale

Coal

Limestone

Sandstone

 2  Metamorphic
Formed under ground when the Earth's crust moves, changing a rock with intense heat and pressure (squeezing). [Q27:88] E.g.:


Marble

Quartzite

Granulite

Gneiss

Eclogite

 3  Igneous
Formed when liquid rock (magma) flow out from volcanoes, and then cools & hardens as solid rock. عين القطر [Q34:12] E.g.:


Obsidian

Dunite

Basalt

Pumice

Rhyolite


Precious Stones

Rocks are used for constructions, appliances, fuels etc. But some rocks are considered precious for its aesthetic value. الأرض زينة [Q18:17] When cut and polished, these rocks become expensive jewels. Think diamonds!


Spinel, amethyst, sapphire, aquamarine, peridot, quartz, ruby

& like cultured pearls, new technology can produce synthetic gems identical to it's natural gems. How? For instance, graphite can turn into diamond, under high pressure & high temperature. This is bcoz both graphite & diamond are pure Carbons (C) - the difference is just in its atomic arrangements. So, by changing the arrangement - the stones will change ماشاء الله


Diamond and Graphite - the same pure Carbon (C), only different in atomic arrangements

As humans are 18% Carbon, so we can actually become diamond too. حمإ مسنون [Q15:26 | the body] And I always say this literally... [memorial diamond] (◠-◠)'



Meteorites & Space Rocks

The Earth also receives meteorites. These space rocks carry elements, and this is how the Earth received Iron (Fe). وأنزلنا الحديد [Q57:25 | geology]

The early Earth itself was bombarded by meteorites. Through time, some asteroids have also impacted Earth. وأمطرنا عليها حجارة من سجيل [Q11:82]

Now, the Earth continuously receives a rain of space dust.



Water On Rocks


Rocks on Earth are heated by the Sun (exterior) and the Earth's core (interior). But it is also showered by water. It is water that erodes rocks. Water also filter rocks and store it under ground, which forms springs.


اعوذب لله من الشيطان الرجيم
وإن من الحجارة لما يتفجر منه الأنهار ...
... وإن منها لما يشقق فيخرج منه الماء

... there are stones from which rivers burst forth
and there are some of them that split open and water comes out ...

[Partial Holy Quran 2:74]

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I'm still learning. Isn't rocks fascinating! ماشاء الله


I seek refuge in Allah SWT very much from errors
Only Allah SWT Knows Best والله أعلم

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4 comments on "Rocks, Gems and Meteors"

γυναίκα on Mar 27, 2012, 10:22:00 AM said...

I'm grateful, coz now I kinda see that the building blocks of creations in this universe can be looked up in the periodic table. So... If I understand it right, & may Allah SWT forgives me if ever, I believe Allah SWT, the Creator, is above all of these elements.

Allah SWT is the Creator, the Originator.

سبحان ربك رب العزة عما يصفون

γυναίκα on Apr 24, 2012, 8:17:00 AM said...

It's fascinating how graphite can turn into clear diamonds. bcoz, they say Hajar Aswad was once whiter than milk. But it is now black, suiting it's name, Aswad (أسود: black). Is it due to a change in its atom arrangement?

Can the heart can be like that? [SM1.267]

I seek refuge in Allah SWT from errors والله أعلم

γυναίκα on Apr 24, 2012, 5:48:00 PM said...

Whoa... intense pressure from nuclear explosion forms shocked quartz [photo]. Even a volcano wouldn't generate such pressures to form it! So, when shocked quartz is discovered in an area, this is evidence of an impact.

Shocked quartz is found worldwide in a thin K–T boundary, which is evidence that at that time period, the Earth experienced a large impact. A layer of iridium [photo] is also an evidence of impact, bcoz iridium is very rare on Earth but concentrated in meteors & comets. [usgs]

I seek refuge in Allah SWT from errors والله أعلم

Snow on May 29, 2014, 9:27:00 PM said...

BTW, I missed ground water in the rock layer diagram. [pic] "..For indeed, there are stones from which rivers burst forth, and there are some of them that split open and water comes out.." [Q2:74]

& people report of marine fossils in the Riyadh deserts, KSA [ref1, ref2]
Was this place be underwater in ancient times? & how did it form fossil fuel?

I seek refuge in Allah SWT from errors. والله أعلم


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