And the heaven He raised and imposed the balance. [Quran 55:7]
And We (shall) place the scales of justice on the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly... [Partial Quran 21:47]
This is an atom. It has  a nucleus, and  electrons around the nucleus. The nucleus is made up of neutrons & protons. Further, there are sub atomic particles like quarks... [subatoms | Q10:61] Anyway, the proton has a positive charge (+), while the electron has a negative charge (-). As the number of protons = the number of electrons, the positive nucleus balances the negative electrons. [Q55:7]
And what will make you to know what At-Tariq is? (It is) the star of piercing brightness. [Quran 86:2-3]
Tarq طرق means "knock, pound". Is At-Tariq الطارق "the pounding"?
Nuclear fusion created the second & third atoms — 2 helium & 3 lithium. It also turned mass into light, so let there be light, the clumps turned into bright flaming stars! ماشاء الله Inside the stars, the nuclear fusion continues, smashing & fusing, forming more & more atoms (elements).
Periodic Table Elements
After the stars cooked up the elements in the periodic table, we have all kinds of atoms.
For starters, these are atoms with the atomic number 1 - 18, with the protons numbered.
|As you can see, atoms have shells around their nucleus. Atoms seek to have full shells, as it makes them stable (less reactive to other atoms).|
For atoms with the atomic number 1-18, full shells means the 2-8-8 rule:
· shell 1 has 2 electrons
· shell 2 has 8 electrons
· shell 3 has 8 electrons
Atoms can give or share its electrons with other atoms, to make full shells.
|Example 1: Give|
The 9 fluorine atom can't make a full second shell bcoz it's missing an electron. 11 Sodium has an extra electron.
When sodium gives this electron to flourine, it becomes positively charged (more protons). When flourine receives this electron, it becomes negatively charged (more electrons). The opposite charges attracts & bond them. This is an ionic bond. [electromagnetic]
Example 2: Share
The 8 oxygen atom need 2 electrons to make a full second shell. When it meets another oxygen atom, both of them have the same electrons so no one wants to give. But they can share. Atom1 shares 2 electrons & Atom2 shares 2 electrons. This is a covalent bond.
Elaborate diagram is here
I also tried figuring how the same carbon atom can make two opposite stones - diamond & graphite. The elaborate diagram imagines the structure — if diamond really is stacked that way, I think that's why it is HARD. & all the electrons in the diamond are bonded, while there are free electrons in the graphite — so is that why diamonds do not conduct electricity, while graphite does?
Anyway. That's how atoms build the universe, by bonding & interacting with each other...
Atoms interaction is governed by 4 fundamental forces:
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High. Who has created (everything), and then proportioned it. And Who has measured (destined) and guided. And who brings out the pasture. And (then) makes it black stubble. [Quran 87:1-5]
Well... when I was in school, I only passed chemistry once. (m-m) But I'm so curious. So for now this is more about trying to figure things out & make it easy... I hope I get this right. (◠v◠)' At least now I see that the universe is designed - there are measurements, balance & time in the atom.
Jabir ibn Hayyan wrote Kitab Al-Kimya in the 8th century & inspired the European Geber. [ref]
Dreaming of the past? Well... now we have Zara Salim Davidson. الحمد لله
I seek refuge in Allah SWT from errors.
Only Allah SWT Knows Best والله أعلم